List of Underserved Populations and Resources

Dis/abilities and Abilities

A. Blind and Visually Impaired
  • Privacy Concerns and Behaviors of People with Visual Impairments by Tousif Ahmed, Roberto Hoyle, Kay Connelly, David Crandall, and Apu Kapadia. CHI 2015
  • ColourID: Improving Colour Identification for People with Impaired Colour Vision by David R. Flatla, Alan R. Andrade, Ross D. Teviotdale, Dylan L. Knowles, and Craig Stewart, CHI 2015.
  • The SoundsRight CAPTCHA: an improved approach to audio human interaction proofs for blind users byJonathan Lazar, Jinjuan Feng, Tim Brooks, Genna Melamed, Brian Wentz, Jon Holman, Abiodun Olalere, and Nnanna Ekedebe, CHI 2012.
  • Enhancing independence and safety for blind and deaf-blind public transit riders by Shiri Azenkot, Sanjana Prasain, Alan Borning, Emily Fortuna, Richard E. Ladner, and Jacob O. Wobbrock, CHI 2011.
  • The Interaction experiences of Visually Impaired people with assistive technology: A case study of smartphones (2016) by Hyun K Kim et al, SOUPS 2016.
  • Hanlu Ye, Meethu Malu, Uran Oh, and Leah Findlater. 2014. Current and Future Mobile and Wearable Device Use by People with Visual Impairments. In Proceedings of the 32nd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 3123-3132.
  • “I’m Stuck!”: A Contextual Inquiry of People with Visual Impairments in Authentication by Bryan Dosono, Jordan Hayes, and Yang Wang, SOUPS 2015.
  • Addressing Physical Safety, Security, and Privacy for People with Visual Impairments by Tousif Ahmed, Patrick Shaffer, Kay Connelly, David Crandall, and Apu Kapadia, SOUPS 2016.
  • "Is Someone There? Do They Have a Gun": How Visual Information about Others Can Improve Personal Safety Management for Blind Individuals by Stacy M. Branham, Ali Abdolrahmani, William Easley, Morgan Scheuerman, Erick Ronquillo, and Amy Hurst, ASSESTS 19.
  • Should I Trust It When I Cannot See It?: Credibility Assessment for Blind Web Users by Ali Abdolrahmani and Ravi Kuber, ASSESTS 18.
  • Zebra Crossing Spotter: Automatic Population of Spatial Databases for Increased Safety of Blind Travelers by Dragan Ahmetovic, Roberto Manduchi, James M. Coughlan, and Sergio Mascetti, ASSESTS 17.
  • Sequential Gestural Passcodes on Google Glass by Abdullah Ali, ASSESTS 17.
  • Web Search Credibility Assessment for Individuals who are Blind by Ali Abdolrahmani, Ravi Kuber, and William Easley, ASSESTS 17.
  • A haptic ATM interface to assist visually impaired users by Brendan Cassidy, Gilbert Cockton, and Lynne Coventry, ASSESTS 15.
  • PassChords: secure multi-touch authentication for blind people by Shiri Azenkot, Kyle Rector, Richard Ladner, and Jacob Wobbrock, ASSESTS 14.
  • Developing usable CAPTCHAs for blind users by Jonathan Holman, Jonathan Lazar, Jinjuan Heidi Feng, and John D'Arcy, ASSESTS 9.
  • BrailleSketch: A Gesture-based Text Input Method for People with Visual Impairments by Mingzhe Li, Mingming Fan, and Khai N. Truong, ASSESTS 19.
  • Don't listen! I am dictating my password! by Shaojian Zhu, Yao Ma, Jinjuan Feng, and Andrew Sears, ASSESTS.
B. Upper body and motor impairments
  • Don't listen! I am dictating my password! By Shaojian Zhu, Yao Ma, Jinjuan Feng, and Andrew Sears, ASSESTS 14.
C. Cognitive impairments
  • Investigating User Behavior for Authentication Methods: A Comparison between Individuals with Down Syndrome and Neurotypical Users by Yao Ma, Jinjuan Feng, Libby Kumin, and Jonathan Lazar, TACCESS Volume 4 Issue 4, July 2013.
  • Ethical and practical concerns of surveillance technologies in residential care of people with dementia or intellectual disabilities: an overview of literature (2010). Alistair R. Niemeijer et al, SOUPS 2010.
  • Carmit-Noa Shpigelman and Carol J. Gill. 2014 How do Adults with intellectual disabilities use Facebook? Disability & Society 29, 10 (Nov. 2014), 1601-1616.
  • A novel wayfinding system based on geo-coded qr codes for individuals with cognitive impairments by Yao-Jen Chang, Shih-Kai Tsai, Yao-Sheng Chang, and Tsen-Yung Wang, ASSESTS 9.
D. Medical Devices and Health
  • SoK: Security and Privacy in Implantable Medical Devices and Body Area Networks by Michael Rushanan (Johns Hopkins University), Colleen Swanson (University of Michigan), Denis Foo Kune (University of Michigan), and Aviel D. Rubin (Johns Hopkins University), IEEE 2014.
  • Self-tracking for Mental Wellness: Understanding Expert Perspectives and Student Experiences by Christina Kelley, Bongshin Lee, and Lauren Wilcox, CHI 2017.
  • Identification and Classification of Usage Patterns in Long-Term Activity Tracking by Jochen Meyer, Merlin Wasmann, Wilko Heuten, Abdallah El Ali, and Susanne C.J. Boll, CHI 2017.
  • Sharing Health Information on Facebook: Practices, Preferences, and Risk Perceptions of North American Users by Sadegh Torabi and Konstantin Beznozov, SOUPS 2016.
  • Privacy implications for single sign-on authentication in a hospital environment by Rosa R. Heckle, and Wayne G. Lutters, SOUPS 07.
  • Privacy as Articulation Work in HIV Health Services by Chrysanthi Papoutsi and Ian Brown, CSCW 2015.
  • Supporting treatment of people living with HIV / AIDS in resource limited settings with IVRs by Anirudha Joshi, Mandar Rane, Debjani Roy, Nagraj Emmadi , Padma Srinivasan, N. Kumarasamy, Sanjay Pujari, Davidson Solomon, Rashmi Rodrigues, D.G. Saple, Kamalika Sen, Els Veldeman, and Romain Rutten, CHI 2014.

General Studies on Disability/Usability:

  • Disability, Age, and Informational Privacy Attitudes in Quality of Life Technology Applications: Results from a National Web Survey by Scott Beach, Richard Schulz, Julie Downs, Judith Matthews, Bruce Barron, and Katherine Seelman, TACCESS Volume 2 Issue 1, May 2009.
  • Privacy and De-Identification in High-Dimensional Social Science Datasets By Cheyenne Solomon*, Raquel Hill*, Erick Janssen**, and Stephanie Sanders**, School of Informatics and Computing, Indiana University, IEEE 2011.
  • Where Usability and Security Go Hand-in-Hand: Robust Gesture-Based Authentication for Mobile Systems by Can Liu, Gradeigh D. Clark, and Janne Lindqvist, CHI 2017.
  • Jacob O. Wobbrock, Shaun K. Kane, Krzysztof Z. Gajos, Susumu Harada, and Jon Froehlich. 2011. Ability-Based Design: Concept, Principles and Examples. ACM Trans. Access. Comput. 3,3 (April 2011), 9:1-9:27., TACCESS 2010.

Older Adults

  • Navigating Relationships and Boundaries: Concerns around ICT-uptake for Elderly People by Dominik Hornung, Claudia Müller, Irina Shklovski, Timo Jakobi, and Volker Wulf, CHI 2017.
  • Privacy Considerations when Designing Social Network Systems to Support Successful Ageing by Andrew R. McNeill, Lynne Coventry, Jake Pywell, and Pam Briggs, CHI 2017.
  • Navigating Relationships and Boundaries: Concerns around ICT-uptake for Elderly People by Dominik Hornung, Claudia Müller, Irina Shklovski, Timo Jakobi, and Volker Wulf, CHI 2017.
  • Dissecting Spear Phishing Emails for Older vs Young Adults: On the Interplay of Weapons of Influence and Life Domains in Predicting Susceptibility to Phishing by Daniela Oliveira, Harold Rocha, Huizi Yang, Donovan Ellis, Sandeep Dommaraju, Melis Muradoglu, Devon Weir, Adam Soliman, Tian Lin, and Natalie Ebner, CHI 2017.
  • Age-related performance issues for PIN and face-based authentication systems by James Nicholson, Lynne Coventry, and Pam Briggs, CHI 2013.
  • Independence and interaction: understanding seniors' privacy and awareness needs for aging in place by Jeremy Birnholtz and McKenzie Jones-Rounds, CHI 2010.
  • Richard A. Sit. 1998 Online Library Catalog Search Performance by Older Adult Users. Library & Information Science Research 20, 2 (1998), 115-131.
  • Accessible Mobile Biometrics for Elderly by Ramon Blanco-Gonzalo, Raul Sanchez-Reillo, Löic Martinez-Normand, Belen Fernandez-Saavedra and Judith Liu-Jimenez, ASSESTS 17.
  • Real-time Activity-sensitive Wearable Ankle Edema Monitoring System For Elderly and Visually Impaired Heart Failure Patients by Ahmad S. Manshad, Muhanad S. Manshad, and Sara S. Manshad, ASSESTS 19.
  • Fall and emergency detection with mobile phones by Hamed Ketabdar and Tim Polzehl, ASSESTS 14.
  • The portal monitor: a privacy-enhanced event-driven system for elder care by John Duncan, L. Jean Camp, and William R. Hazelwood, 4th International Conference on Persuasive Technology.
  • Independence and interaction: understanding seniors' privacy and awareness needs for aging in place by Jeremy Birnholtz and McKenzie Jones-Rounds, CHI 2010.
  • Protecting senior citizens from cyber security attacks in the e-health scenario: an international perspective by Haricharan Rengamani, Shambhu Upadhyaya, H. Raghav Rao, and Ponnurangam Kumaraguru, CSIIRW '10.
  • Accessible Mobile Biometrics for Elderly by Ramon Blanco-Gonzalo, Raul Sanchez-Reillo, Löic Martinez-Normand, Belen Fernandez-Saavedra , and Judith Liu-Jimenez, ASSESTS 15.
  • Pervasive healthcare: the elderly perspective by Linda Little, and Pam Briggs, PETRA '09.
A. Mixed Studies (Include other underserved identities like disability, culture/non-western perspective)
  • Acceptance of Wearable technology by people with Alzheimer’s disease: issues and accommodations (2010) by Edward L. Mahoney and Diane F. Mahoney, SOUPS 2010.


  • Yang Wang, G Norice, and L. Cranor. 2011. Who is Concerned About What? A Study of American, Chinese and Indian Users’ Privacy Concerns on Social Network Sites. Trust and Trustworthy Computing (2011), 146-153, TRUST 2011.
  • Home is safer than the cloud!: Privacy concerns for consumer cloud storage by Iulia Ion, Niharika Sachdeva, Ponnurangam Kumaraguru, and Srdjan Capkun, SOUPS 2011.
  • India

  • A comparative study of location-sharing privacy preferences in the United States and China by Jialiu Lin, Michael Benisch, Norman Sadeh, Jianwei Niu, Jason Hong, Banghui Lu, and Shaohui Guo, Journal of Personal and Ubiquitous Computing archive Volume 17 Issue 4, April 2013 Pages 697-711
  • A cross-cultural comparison of information privacy concerns in Singapore, Sweden and the United States by Zafer D. Ozdemir, John H. Benamati, and H. Jeff Smith, ICEC '16.
A. East Asia


  • A Chinese wall security model for decentralized workflow systems by Vijayalakshmi Atluri, Soon Ae Chun, and Pietro Mazzoleni, CCS 2001.
  • FingerVoice: A Syllable Based Input System Via Fingers Touching by Wenjie Chen, Yangyang Ma, Zhilei Chai, and Mingsong Chen, ASSESTS 19.
  • Japan

  • Self-Confidence Trumps Knowledge: A Cross-Cultural Study of Security Behavior Yukiko Sawaya † Mahmood Sharif ‡ Nicolas Christin ‡ Ayumu Kubota † Akihiro Nakarai † Akira Yamada †; CHI 2017
B. India
  • Security analysis of India's electronic voting machines by Scott Wolchok, Eric Wustrow, J. Alex Halderman, Hari K. Prasad, Arun Kankipati, Sai Krishna Sakhamuri, Vasavya Yagati, and Rop Gonggrijp, CCS 2010.
C. USA and other countries
  • Privacy Attitudes of Mechanical Turk Workers and the U.S. Public by Ruogu Kang, Stephanie Brown, Laura Dabbish, and Sara Kiesler, SOUPS 2014.
D. Global South
  • Privacy, Security, and Surveillance in the Global South: A Study of Biometric Mobile SIM Registration in Bangladesh Syed Ishtiaque Ahmed1, Md. Romael Hoque2, Shion Guha3, Md. Rashidujjaman Rifat4 , Nicola Dell, CHI 2017.
E. Africa


  • PTransnationalism, Indigenous Knowledge and Technology: Insights from the Kenyan Diaspora by Kagonya Awori, Frank Vetere, and Wally Smith, CHI 2015.
  • DigiTally: Piloting Offline Payments for Phones by Khaled Baqer, Ross Anderson, Jeunese Adrienne Payne, Lorna Mutegi, and Joseph Sevilla, SOUPS 2017.
  • Ghana

  • Exploring Internet Security Perceptions and Practices in Urban Ghana by Jay Chen, Michael Paik, and Kelly McCabe, SOUPS 2014.
F. Middle East

Saudia Arabia

  • Security Practices for Households Bank Customers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by Deena Alghamdi, Ivan Flechais, and Marina Jirotka, SOUPS 2015.

Children and Family

  • Texting while Parenting: How Adults Use Mobile Phones while Caring for Children at the Playground by Alexis Hiniker, Kiley Sobel, Hyewon Suh, Yi-Chen Sung, Charlotte P. Lee, and Julie A. Kientz, CHI 2015.
  • Managing Children's Online Identities: How Parents Decide what to Disclose about their Children Online by Tawfiq Ammari, Priya Kumar, Cliff Lampe, and Sarita Schoenebeck, CHI 2015.
  • Regulating Access to Adult Content (with Privacy Preservation) by Karen Renaud and Joseph Maguire, CHI 2015.
  • No Passwords Needed: The Iterative Design of a parent-child authentication mechanism (2017) by Kalpana Hundlani and Sonia Chiasson, SOUPS 2017.
  • How Effective is Anti-Phishing Training for Children? by Elmer Lastdrager, Inés Carvajal Gallardo, Pieter Hartel, and Marianne Junger, SOUPS 2017.
  • Parenting from the pocket: value tensions and technical directions for secure and private parent-teen mobile safety by Alexei Czeskis, Ivayla Dermendjieva, Hussein Yapit, Alan Borning, Batya Friedman, Brian Gill, Tadayoshi Kohno, SOUPS 2010.
  • Bitefrost: the One Laptop per Child Security Model by Ivan Krstić, and Simson L. Garfinkel, SOUPS 2007.
  • From Nosy Little Brothers to Stranger-Danger: Children and Parents' Perception of Mobile Threats by Leah Zhang-Kennedy, Christine Mekhail, Yomna Abdelaziz , and Sonia Chiasson, IDC '16.
  • Digital parenting: designing children's safety by Jennifer A. Rode, BCS-HCI '09.
  • Under my pillow: designing security for children's special things by Janet C. Read and Russell Beale, BCS-HCI '09.
  • A case study of non-adoption: the values of location tracking in the family by Asimina Vasalou, Anne-Marie Oostveen, and Adam N. Joinson, CSCW '12.
  • Click to Enter: Comparing Graphical and Textual Passwords for Children by Jasper Cole, Greg Walsh, and Zach Pease, IDC '17.

Teens/Young People

  • Parents Just Don't Understand: Why Teens Don't Talk to Parents about Their Online Risk Experiences by Pamela Wisniewski, Heng Xu, Mary Beth Rosson, and John M. Carroll, CSCW 2017.
  • Risk-taking as a Learning Process for Shaping Teen's Online Information Privacy Behaviors by Haiyan Jia, J. Wisniewski, Heng Xu, Mary Beth Rosson, and John M. Carroll, CSCW 2015.
  • Valerie Steeves and Priscilla Regan. 2014. Young People online and the social value of privacy. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 12, 4 (Nov. 2014), 293-313. Journal and not a conference.
  • Pamela Wisniewski, Heng Xu, Mary Beth Rosson, Daniel F. Perkins, and John M. Carroll, 2016. Dear Diary: Teens Reject on Their Weekly Online Risk Experiences. In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’16). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 3919-3930. 2858317, CHI 2016.
  • Seounmi Youn. 2009. Determinants of Online Privacy Concern and Its influence on Privacy Protection Behaviors Among Young Adolescents. Journal of Consumer Affairs 43, 3 (Sept. 2009), 389-418., Journal and not a conference.
  • Parents’ and Teens’ Perspectives on Privacy In a Technology-Filled World by Lorrie Faith Cranor, Adam L. Durity, Abigail Marsh, and Blase Ur, SOUPS 2014.
  • Snooping on Mobile Phones: Prevalence and Trends by DiogoMarques, Ildar Muslukhov, Tiago Guerrero, Konstantin Beznosov, and Luis Carrico, SOUPS 2016.
  • Privacy for Children and Teenagers on Social Networks from a Usability Perspective: A Case Study on Facebook by Cristiana S. Silva, Glívia A.R. Barbosa, Ismael S. Silva, Tatiane S. Silva, Fernando Mourão, and Flávio Coutinho, WebSci '17.

Domestic Abuse Survivors

  • Sensible Privacy: How We Can Protect Domestic Violence Survivors Without Facilitating Misuse by Budi Arief, Kovila P. L. Coopamootoo, Martin Emms, Aad van Moorsel, SOUPS 2014.
  • Stories from Survivors: Privacy & Security Practices when coping with Intimate Partner abuse (2017) by Tara Matthews, Kathleen O’Leary, Anne Turner et al, SOUPS 2017.


  • LGBT Parents and Social Media: Advocacy, Privacy, and Disclosure during Shifting Social Movements by Lindsay Blackwell, Jean Hardy, Tawfiq Ammari, Tiffany Veinot, Cliff Lampe, and Sarita Schoenebeck, CHI 2016.
  • Gender Recognition or Gender Reductionism?: The Social Implications of Embedded Gender Recognition Systems. Foad Hamidi, Morgan Klaus Scheuerman, and Stacy M. Branham. CHI2018.

Women and Gender Studies

  • Engaging Pregnant Women in Kenya with a Hybrid Computer-Human SMS Communication System by Trevor Perrier, Nicola Dell , Brian DeRenzi , Richard Anderson, John Kinuthia, Jennifer Unger, and Grace John-Stewart, CHI 2015.
  • Kenya – Non-Western

  • Girls, technology and privacy: "is my mother listening?" By Wendy March and Constance Fleuriot, CHI 2006.


  • Reflection through design: immigrant women's self-reflection on managing health and wellness by Deana Brown, Victoria Ayo, and E. Grinter, CHI 2014.
  • Keeping a Low Profile?: Technology, Risk and Privacy among Undocumented Immigrants. CHI2018. Tamy Guberek, Allison McDonald, Sylvia Simioni, Abraham H. Mhaidli, Kentaro Toyama, and Florian Schaub.
  • Refugees

  • Computer Security and Privacy for Refugees in the United States. Lucy Simko, Ada Lerner, Samia Ibtasam, Franziska Roesner, and Tadayoshi Kohno. IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (Oakland 2018).


  • Transition Resilience with ICTs: 'Identity Awareness' in Veteran Re-Integration by Bryan C. Semaan, Lauren M. Britton, and Bryan Dosono, CHI 2016.

Ethnic Minorities

  • Intuitions, Analytics, and Killing Ants: Inference Literacy of High School-educated Adults in the US by Jeffrey Warshaw, Nina Taft, and Allison Woodruff,
  • Social Class - Lower Ses

  • Understanding technology choices and values through social class by Morgan G. Ames, Janet Go, Joseph ‘Jofish’ Kaye, and Mirjana Spasojevic, CSCW 2011.
  • Where is the Digital Divide? A Survey of Security, Privacy, and Socioeconomics by Elissa M. Redmiles, Sean Kross ,Michelle L. Mazurek, CHI 2016.



  • Intersectional HCI: Engaging Identity through Gender, Race, and Class by Ari Schlesinger, W. Keith Edwards, and Rebecca E. Grinter, CHI 2017.
  • Imagining Intersectional Futures: Feminist approaches in CSCW by Sarah Fox, Amanda Menking, Stephanie Steinhardt, Anna Lauren Hoffmann, and Shaowen Bardzell, From CSCW 2016.
  • General

  • Understanding the Experience-Centeredness of Privacy and Security Technologies. (2014) by Paul Dunphy, John Vines, Lizzie Coles-Kemp, et al, SOUPS 2014.
  • Perceived Risk and Self-Efficacy Regarding Internet Security in a Marginalized Community by Eunjin (EJ) Jung, Evelyn Y. Ho, Hyewon Chung, and Mark Sinclair, CHI EA '15.